What is an ICO (Initial Coin Offering)?

No doubt, the increasing victory of blockchain and cryptocurrencies in the financial system has created space for more ideas to flourish. Why it is hardly believed that there are still people who do not understand the rudiments and the evolving concepts coming in day by day, there is an increasing rise of a new phenomenon, which according to movers and shakers of the crypto-world is revolutionising the way capitals are being raised in entrepreneurship community.

There is now a paradigm shift in how capitals are being raised. Venture capitals, crowdfunding and Initial public offerings (IPO), which are widespread, are already packing into obscurity through the advent of Initial Coin Offering (ICO).

 stalk of bitcoin

So, how does Initial Coin Offering (ICO) works?

Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a 21st-century state-of-the-art crowdfunding system employed by startups to raise early seed investment. The idea detours the age-long investment protocols. Financial experts declare that it is an unmonitored way of raising fund for cryptocurrency startup. During ICO campaign, a particular portion of the cryptocurrency called token is sold to those who desired to invest in the project; they are regarded as early backers.
In an ICO, tokens are acquired. It is like Initial Public Offering (IPO) where investors acquire shares of a firm. Click here to learn more about the future of money here.
Like shares tokens are coins tendered to investors during an ICO and are seen as the equivalence of shares acquired during (IPO). This tokens or coins are as well called crypto-coins.
Some financial experts conclude that an ICO protocol is not regulated and give founders the opportunity to acquire capitals beyond what is required to start up a firm.

A bit look into the history of ICO

In 2013, Mastercoin employed the use of ICO and it today said to be the first known ICO in history. Around $600,000 was raised to fund Bitcoin exchange and platform for financial trades.
Bitcoin in 2009, became the first cryptocurrency, creating avenues for other altcoins like litecoins, ripples, Ethereum to fall into the circle of cryptocurrencies.  Visit here to learn about the history and the journey so far on ICO.
The first successful ICO paved the way for startups to use the idea of securing funds for their innovations. Since 2013, ICOs have generated a whopping sum of US$327m through pair-to-pair fundraising.

Summarized stages of an ICO

1. Pre-Announcement Stage:
An ICO project needs to be pre-announced to get more investors to buy the idea. It is otherwise regarded as the marketing stage of an ICO. Prior to the announcement, a detailed explanation of the project, called the white paper, is made. This paper gives a detailed insight to aspiring investors/backers, it touches grey areas with expository views, and provide an account of how the project is to evolve.
The moment the whitepaper is circulated, aspiring backers look into it to determine the prospect of the idea, and give cogent feedback which decides if there would be investors for the project. The company then address the objections raised in the final draft of the white paper.
2. Offering Stage:
After complaints are looked into, the final draft of the whitepaper is presented to interested backers, outlining the details of the project, the needed capital, and the timeline of the project.
Also, the financial percentage (token) to be sold as ICO is stated. Once the offer is signed, the date for the commencement of ICO is announced with a massive campaign launched to get more backers.
3. Marketing Campaign:
The intensity of marketing campaign determines the amount of capital is raised. It is crucial that the campaign is brought to aspiring investors, companies and individuals. It is better to employ massive online campaign to better reach more backers in a short time. Read here how to on how to nail your marketing campaign on ICO.
4. Buying and Selling Period:
After the enormous campaign comes the token buying and selling period. This time, the startup company must have identified an exchange for the token to be sold. Some startups use bitcoin or notable altcoins.


Types of ICO

Investors do want to know the kinds of ICO that a startup employed before thinking of investing in it. Knowing what kind of ICO a venture seeks to employ will make one aware of the risk involved.
Below are types of tokens in ICO.
1. Currency Tokens
These are tokens or cryptocurrencies used in buying and selling goods online. They are as well used as a store of value. Unlike our fiat currencies, cryptocurrencies functions outside the confine of a central bank, hence, decentralized. Examples are bitcoin, litecoin, Ethereum etc.
2. Tokenized Securities
Tokenizes securities are otherwise regarded as security or equity tokens. It is more of buying a portion of a company, i.e. shares after a token sale is completed. This idea is more or less of stocks and denotes that one is part of the owners of the project invested into. Check out how your security tokens work at Commbank.
3. Reward/ Reputation Tokens
This token is shared among users of a platform as a reward for using the platform or for achieving a given task. They are usually served to people as a result of loyalty to a platform.

Ongoing Crypto Innovation

Cryptocurrency is constantly going through major innovation each day. This is not just a mere investment but a real invention of a cashless transaction.You probably do spot Bitcoin ATM machines everywhere. Cashless transactions are not a science fiction anymore but an everyday reality. Taxi Cash™, an Australian innovation on driverless or standard car rides, making travel global, cashless and international transaction free, by using crypto tokens.

class="read_more">Read More

Top Rated Taxi Companies in Australia

Australia has had a reasonably well-regulated taxi industry and big names in the business enjoyed near monopoly in the regions they serviced. While their stranglehold is slated to change over the coming weeks.
Here is a list of Major players in the Australian taxi industry

  • Silver Top Taxi
  • 13 Cabs NSW, Adelaide
  • Premier Cabs, Sydney
  • Taxi Maxi Melbourne, Victoria
  • Bayside Taxi
  • Swan Taxi – Perth WA
  • Black & White Taxis
  • Yellow Cabs Brisbane
  • 13ecab Tasmania
  • Yellow Cabs
  • Hobart Maxi Taxis

Victoria has 5636 taxi licences, of which 636 are wheelchair accessible. In September 2015 the value of once license stood at $270,000 and over the next 12 months, i.e., September 2016, this value plummeted to $160,000.

Interestingly, just about 8 businesses own anything in excess of 10 licences. Many of the smaller players operate within the networks of the bigger players.
There are about 15,000 active taxi drivers clocking about 35 million trips every year. The Gange family holds about 118 licences and are also owners of Silver Top which has a network of some 2000 taxis.

Cabcharge which also owns 13 Cabs has 24 taxi licences in its pocket in the name of Black Cabs and six more under the name of Arrow Taxi services. Cabcharge also has links with the Granger family which is a veteran player in the Australian taxi industry with 24 licenses under its belt.

Following is the region-wise top taxi companies in Australia

Melbourne, Victoria

Taxi Maxi Melbourne

Taxi Maxi Melbourne has over 12 years of experience in the taxi business and has earned itself an exalted place among customers with over 98% customer satisfaction levels. This service provides latest model vehicles, private cars, and chauffeured cars in Melbourne at competitive prices. Expert and experienced drivers ensure commitment as well as quality. Many customer reviews point to this service as very reliable, friendly and affordable. Other options in Melbourne include 13Cabs and Silver Top Taxis.

Silver Top – Melbourne

This is another option for hiring taxis in Melbourne. Customer reviews for this service, however, tilt more towards the negative side and therefore, you may want to exercise abundant caution while hiring this service

Bayside taxis

Bayside Cab service is another option you have in the Melbourne area. The service offers clean and luxurious taxis on time and assures comfortable and relaxed travel in their cars.

Yellow Cabs of Victoria

Yellow Cabs of Victoria is an owner operated service in Greater Victoria and has been rendering top-notch service since 1921. The service assures reliable and comfortable vehicles to meet business and personal needs of customers. They also claim to be above the average taxi companies that you can find. The combined fleet of the service exceeds 110 taxicabs that are available on a 24×7 basis as well as wheelchair accessible vehicles and more than 70 hybrid vehicles. It assures its passengers’ most convenient taxis in Victoria and her neighbourhoods.


Major taxi companies in Sydney are Premier Cabs, Silver Service and Taxi Sydney, though you have a number of other options too.

Premier Cabs

Premier cabs offer a wide range of services in the Sydney metropolitan area and her neighbourhoods. No matter you are a single individual or a group, Premier cabs have the answer to all your surface transportation needs in Sydney.

Silver Service

Silver service offers a wide array of options including wheelchair accessible transport, parcel service, door to door service, and airport transfers. However, this service has a mixed bag of good and bad customer reviews and therefore taking a balanced view may be necessary.


 Swan Taxis

Swan Taxis claim to be the largest service in the Perth area to provide you with the services beyond you expected. They are even offering some great discounts for bookings up to January 1, 2018. There is also a flat fare option via an app. The discount will be included in the flat fare, and the passenger will know the exact amount to be paid before he boards the taxi. This is however in addition to the metered fare that is traditionally offered.



Yellow Cabs

Yellow Cabs Brisbane offers cabs for 1 to 10 passengers and a wide range of accessibility options. With a fleet of versatile Maxi Taxis and experienced expert drivers, the service offers a luxurious experience.



13eCab Hobart

This service comes with over 10 years of experience in the industry and assures excellent customer service and quality taxis. The service is available throughout the year servicing Greater Hobart and her neighbourhoods.


Hobart Maxi Taxis

Hobart Maxi taxis have a fleet of 9 Toyota Hiace and 5 LDV Simca and specialize in transporting special need/ wheelchair reliant customers throughout Greater Tasmania and her neighbourhoods. This service works in conjunction with United Taxis to ensure that the customers, drivers and vehicles are always well cared for.

As you would have noticed, these are only some of the leading taxi operators in different regions of Australia. Depending on your specific needs, there are several other big and small service providers in all major cities and towns across Australia. Customers looking for these services from November 2017 can also expect a significantly improved experience in the wake of sweeping changes that have impacted the Australian taxi industry in recent weeks.

class="read_more">Read More

Travelling while pregnant? Learn why Pre-pregnancy check-up may be important for you

The primary objective of a pre-pregnancy checkup is to ensure that your body in all respects is ready to carry the pregnancy, either travelling or not.


pregnant women sitting in back seat of carPregnant women who travel need to consider the risk of pregnancy complications, the increased risk of venous thromboembolism with prolonged immobility during the trip, the potential risk of exposure to infectious diseases like malaria, Zika virus and more, and the availability of medical resources and insurance coverage at your destination.

Airline travel

Some airlines allow flying up to 34 weeks of gestation, and a healthy baby’s heart rate normally not affected during flight. it is your responsibility maintain hydration and to reduce the risk of venous thrombosis, by using compression stockings.

Why is Pre-pregnancy check-up important anyway?

Ideally, you can choose a healthcare provider with whom you can work across your pregnancy and possibly even the birthing process. Such a check-up can be scheduled anytime before getting pregnant and up to 12 months before you plan to get pregnant.

Your fertility can be impacted by certain medical conditions like diabetes, depression, high blood pressure, obesity, weight gain or even low weight. Other factors that can have a bearing on your pregnancy itself or ability to conceive can include the use of street drugs, abuse of prescription drugs and smoking. A pre-pregnancy check-up will help in managing health conditions and bring about changes in lifestyle to ensure that your baby is born healthy.

It is desirable that you take a pre-pregnancy even when you have a baby already. This is because your health could have undergone changes since your last pregnancy. In instances where you have experienced problems with your earlier pregnancy, your healthcare provider can help you avoid similar problems in the next pregnancy. This can be particularly relevant if you had experienced one or more of the following problems during an earlier pregnancy:-

  1. A child born with birth defects – Birth defects represent health conditions present at the time of birth. This can impact the function and shape of one or several parts of the body. They can also lead to problems with the overall health and the way the body develops and works.
  2. Premature Birth – Birth happening before the 37th week of pregnancy is reckoned as premature birth
  3. Miscarriage – If the foetus dies before the 20th week of pregnancy, it represents miscarriage
  4. Stillbirth – Stillbirth means the baby dying in the womb itself prior to birth but after the 20th week of pregnancy.

Which type of healthcare provider should you see for a pre-pregnancy check-up?

animated photo of doctor checking a pregnant women

You can choose a gynaecologist or an obstetrician or a prenatal care specialist or even a nurse specializing in prenatal care. All these professionals can take adequate care of your pregnancy and deliver your baby.

  1. An OB or obstetrician is a medical professional with training and education to care for pregnant women and also deliver babies. There are many ways to find a reliable OB closest to you either with the help of the internet or through your family physician.
  2. A family doctor is a medical professional who generally takes care of everyone in your family. The family physician can take care of you before, after or during the pregnancy.
  3. An MFM or maternal-foetal medicine specialist is a medical professional with specialised training and extensive education to the management of high-risk pregnancy.
  4. An FNP or Family Nurse Practitioner is a nurse with training and education to provide health care to all members of your family.
  5. A WHNP is a Women’s health nurse practitioner who has necessary training and education to provide care for women across ages including women who are pregnant.
  6. A midwife is also a healthcare provider with appropriate training and education to provide care for women across ages including women who are pregnant.

What should be expected during a pre-pregnancy check-up?

During a pre-pregnancy check-up, your healthcare provider will focus on checking your overall health to ensure that your body is ready in all respects for pregnancy. The following factors can be discussed during this process:-

Folic Acid

This is a vitamin needed by every cell in the body for healthy growth as well as the development of the foetus. Taking folic acid before the start of pregnancy and during the early days of pregnancy can help protect the baby from potential birth defects of the spine and brain known as neural tube defect and palate and cleft lip which are birth defects related to the mouth.

Health conditions which could impact your pregnancy

Several health conditions can impact your pregnancy and these include issues like depression, diabetes, high BP, and unhealthy weight. Your healthcare provider will also check for infections like STD (sexually transmitted diseases and toxoplasmosis. He/she may also have questions about the health history of your family to understand if any of those conditions are chronic in your family or in the family of your partner and/or others in the two families have suffered. This will help the physician understand any potential pattern of health concerns in the family and recommend measures to alleviate concerns. A genetic counsellor may be referred to if an in-depth analysis of genes is considered essential to protect your pregnancy.

Prescription and OTC medicines that you take

Your healthcare provider would also want to ensure that all the medicines prescribed for you or the OTC drugs that you are used to are safe for you and your baby. Some medicines like those for diabetes, asthma, or depression may need to be continued throughout the pregnancy since stopping them may invite more problems. Your physician should be relied upon to guide you and his advice should be followed meticulously. Similarly, your physician should be fully aware of any OTC medicines or nutrition supplements that you take so that he/she can advise what works best for you.


Some vaccinations may be advised to prevent disease like rubella or chickenpox affecting you during your pregnancy. These diseases can potentially harm your baby and you during pregnancy. Getting these vaccinations at the pre-conception stage is considered ideal.

Smoking, consumption of alcohol and abuse of street/prescription drugs

You may need help if you are used to or addicted to any of these. Discuss thoroughly with your physician so that he can advise measures that can help you to quit these habits that could be harmful to your baby and your own health.

Impact of chemicals at home/work

Some chemicals like weed killers, paint, cleaning products etc can potentially be harmful during pregnancy. Speak to your physician about how you can protect your baby and yourself from these during the pregnancy.

Birth control

condom in man hand

Many women use several birth control measures to avoid getting pregnant. Your physician may advise you to stop these measures several months before you plan to become pregnant. This will help in having a few normal menstrual cycles and help the physician figure out a potential due date when you are pregnant.
Depending on your individual circumstances your physician may advise a series of other measures too, as part of the pre-pregnancy checkup so that you have a safe pregnancy leading up to a healthy baby.

class="read_more">Read More